HOME

 

CONTACT US

 

SEARCH

 
   

DISEASES DRUGS HOME REMEDIES HERBAL MEDICINES CONTACT US LINKS
 

Actinomycosis

Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis

Aids

Amebiasis

Aspergillosis

Bad Vision

Blastomycosis

Blepharitis

Botulism

Brain Abscess

Bronchiectasis

Brucellosis

Candidiasis

Cardiac Tamponade

Chalazion

Chancroid

Chlamydial Infections

Cholera

Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis

Clonorchiasis

Clostridium Difficile Infection

Colorado Tick Fever

Conjunctivitis

Croup

Cryptosporidiosis

Cushing's Syndrome

Cytomegalovirus Infection

Dacryocystitis

Damage Esophagus

Dermatophytosis

Depression

Dientamoeba Fragilis Infection

Diphtheria

Dwarfism

Ehrlichioses

Empyema

Encephalitis

Endocarditis

Enterobiasis

Enteroviral Diseases

Epididymitis

Epiglottitis

Erysipelas

Enterobateriaceae Infections

Gas Gangrene

Gastroenteritis

Genetal Warts

Giardiasis

Gingivitis

Hookworm Disease - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

What is Hookworm Disease?

Also known as uncinariasis, hookworm disease is an infection of the upper intestine caused by Ancylostoma duodenale (found in the eastern hemisphere) or Necator americanus (in the western hemisphere). Sandy soil, high humidity, a warm climate, and failure to wear shoes all favor its transmission.

In the United States, hookworm disease is most common in the southeast. Although this disease can cause cardiopulmonary complications, it's seldom fatal, except in debilitated people and infants under age 1.

What are the Causes of Hookworm Disease?

Both forms of hookworm disease are transmitted to humans through direct skin penetration (usually in the foot) by hookworm larvae in soil contaminated with feces that contain hookworm ova. These ova develop into infectious larvae in 1 to 3 days.

Larvae travel through the lymphatic's to the pulmonary capillaries, where they penetrate alveoli and move up the bronchial tree to the trachea and epiglottis. There they are swallowed and enter the GI tract. When they reach the small intestine, they mature, attach to the jejunal mucosa, and suck blood, oxygen, and glucose from the intestinal wall. These mature worms then deposit ova, which are excreted in stools, starting the cycle anew. Hookworm larvae mature in about 5 to 6 weeks.

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Hookworm Disease?

Most cases of hookworm disease produce few symptoms may be overlooked until worms are passed in stools. The earliest signs and symptoms include irritation, pruritus, and edema at the site of entry, which are sometimes accompanied by secondary bacterial infection with pustule formation.

When the larvae reach the lungs, they may cause pneumonitis and hemorrhage with fever, sore throat, crackles, and cough. Finally, intestinal infection may cause fatigue, nausea, weight loss, dizziness, melena, and uncontrolled diarrhea.

In severe and chronic infection, anemia from blood loss may lead to cardiomegaly (a result of increased oxygen demands), heart failure, and generalized massive edema.

Treatment for Hookworm Disease

The usual treatment for hookworm infection includes administering an anthelmintic, such as mebendazole, albendazole, levamisole, or pyrantel, and providing an iron-rich diet or iron supplements to prevent or correct anemia. Stool examinations are repeated in 2 weeks. The patient may be retreated if indicated.

Special Considerations and Prevention Tips for Hookworm Disease

Below are some of the Tips which will help you control the disease and prevent it from getting serious:

  • Obtain a complete history, with special attention to travel or residency in endemic areas. Note the sequence and onset of symptoms. Interview the family and other close contacts to see if they too have any symptoms.
  • Carefully assess the patient, noting signs of entry, lymphedema, and respiratory status.
  • Wash your hands thoroughly after every patient contact.
  • For severe anemia, administer oxygen at a low to moderate flow rate. Make sure the oxygen is humidified because the patient may already have upper airway irritation from the parasites.
  • Encourage coughing and deep breathing to stimulate removal of blood or secretions from involved lung areas and to prevent secondary infection.
  • Allow frequent rest periods because the patient may tire easily.
  • If anemia causes immobility, reposition the patient often to prevent skin breakdown.
  • Closely monitor intake and output. Note the quantity and frequency of diarrheal stools. Dispose of stools promptly, and wear gloves when doing so.
  • To help assess nutritional status, weigh the patient daily.
  • To combat malnutrition, emphasize the importance of good nutrition, with particular attention to foods high in iron and protein. If the patient receives iron supplements, explain that they will darken stools.
  • Administer anthelmintics on an empty stomach but without a purgative.

Gonorrhea

Guillain Barre Syndrome

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

Heartburn

Heart Failure

Herpangina

Herpes Zoster

Hookworm Disease

Inclusion Conjunctivitis

Influenza

Labyrinthitis

Laryngeal Cancer

Lassa Fever

Leprosy

Listeriosis

Liver Abscess

Liver Cancer

Lung Abscess

Lyme Disease

Malaria

Mastoiditis

Meniere's Disease

Meningitis

Meningococcal Infections

Microsporidiosis

Molluscum Contagiosum

Mononucleosis

MRSA Infection

Mucormycosis

Mumps

Myelitis

Myocarditis

Myringitis

Nonviral Hepatitis

Optic Atrophy

Pancreatitis

Rabies

Reiters Syndrome

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Scabies

Scarlet Fever

Schistosomiasis

Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome

Strongyloidiasis

Taeniasis

Toxic Shock Syndrome

Tuberculosis

Viral Hepatitis

 

HEALTH CARE | ABOUT US | CONTACT US | BLOG

© 2005 Online-Health-Care.com. All rights reserved.

Disclaimer: Online-Health-Care.com is for informational purposes only and is not intended to act as a substitute for a professional healthcare practitioner advise. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, please consult your doctor. We will not be liable for any complications, injuries or other medical accidents arising from or in connection with the use of or reliance upon any information on this web site.